Computer Science 324
Computer Architecture

Mount Holyoke College
Fall 2007

Lab 3: Digital Logic Design Lab
Due: Circuit demos: 4:00 PM, Monday, October 1, 2007; Written work: 9:00 AM, Tuesday, October 2, 2007

Instead of a regular lecture on Monday, October 1, we will meet in Clapp 201 to construct some simple circuits. You may safely ignore the second part of the lab assignment until that time.
Written Lab Problems

Please complete each of the following problems, and turn them in on the class handout of this lab assignment.

  1. Gray code is an alternative binary representation of integers. Interestingly, incrementing a number in gray code causes the representation to change by exactly one bit. We have seen one context where this representation is useful when we labeled our Karnaugh maps. Consider the following table used to convert 3-bit binary integers into their gray code equivalents:

    gray code000001011010110111101100

    1. Construct three combinational circuits that compute the 1's digit, the 2's digit, and 4's digit of gray code. Please use the general or-of-ands network (the "sum-of-products" we discussed in class). Do not apply any simplification techniques.
    2. Construct the simplest, most elegant circuit you can to convert a binary number (on three inputs) to a gray code number (on three outputs).
  2. In class, we saw how any boolean function can be expressed in disjunctive form -- as a disjunction (or) of a set of terms (often called min-terms), each of which is a conjunction (and) of inputs or their negations. This is a handy if you happen to be a digital circuit designer that has a very large pile of and and not gates, and one big or gate. But what if instead you have large piles of or and not gates, but only a single big and? Show that it is possible to express any boolean function as the conjunction of a set of terms, each of which is a disjunction of inputs.
    1. Prove that deMorgan's law for converting conjunctions to disjunctions (with negations) holds for n>2 inputs.
    2. Prove that deMorgan's law for converting disjunctions to conjunctions (with negations) holds for n>2 inputs.
    3. Use these to prove the conjecture.
  3. Suppose you are interested in constructing a circuit that is high precisely when four input lines DCBA represent a prime in 4-bit unsigned binary.
    1. Use a Karnaugh map to generate a logical expression with the smallest number of terms that computes this function. Do not optimize the expression further.
    2. Suppose we didn't care if the function worked on the range 12..15. Use another Karnaugh map to generate a logical expression with the smallest number of terms that computes this function.
Digital Design Lab

Hand in this lab worksheet along with the written homework problems.

For our first hands-on digital logic lab, the objective is to familiarize you with the workings of the digital lab by constructing a few simple TTL circuits.

When you enter the lab, you will be issued a collection of TTL chips. When you are not using the chips, please remember to return them to their antistatic containers. When the environment is dry, static electricity charges can damage the chips. Antistatic foam helps to dissipate any charges that otherwise might damage the chips.

You should have a number of different chips, including (but not limited to):

74LS00 Quad 2-input NAND
74LS04 Hex inverter
74LS08 Quad 2-input AND
74LS32 Quad 2-input OR

For this lab, you should complete solutions to each of the following questions. Each has several questions, which you should answer and submit with your lab writeup. Before moving from one question to the next, have the instructor check out your circuit.

  1. Other than those described above, what chips do you have? For each, indicate its purpose. (hint: see the attached chip overview)
  2. As a warm-up exercise, construct a circuit that is equivalent to a 5-input AND gate. It lights LED 0 when SW0 through SW4 are all high (1). Strive to use as few chips as possible. Draw the pin-numbered logical circuit you will use before you begin wiring.
  3. Implement a two-input exclusive-or gate. An exclusive-or gate generates a high signal when exactly one of its inputs is high. You may use any circuit you wish, but it should light LED 0 when exactly one of the two switches SW0 and SW1 are set high (1). Draw the circuit you will use before you begin wiring.
  4. Extend the circuit in the previous step to light LED 1 when both switches are set high (1). This circuit is a half adder and sums two one-bit values. Can you wire together two half adders to make a full adder - a device that adds three bits together, generating a two-bit sum? (You needn't actually wire it, but draw the logical circuit here.) Move the wire from LED 0 to input "A" of the 7-segment display, and the wire from LED 1 to the "B" input. Finally, ground the "D1" input. What happens?
  5. Implement - draw a pin-and-chip numbered logical diagram on paper only - the half adder of the previous step using only 74LS00 chips.
  6. (Extra credit) Connect SW0 through SW3 to inputs "A" through "D" respectively. Next, switch each of the blue dip switches in succession. What happens? Now, describe the purpose of the chip in the upper left corner of the board. How many gates do you think it requires?

Lab attachment: Integrated Circuit Handouts